A paper on martin luther and the protestant reformation

For example, Baptist is currently the largest denomination in the United States but there are many dozens more. How did this happen? Where did they all begin? To understand the Protestant Reform movement, we need to go back in history to the early 16th century when there was only one church in Western Europe - what we would now call the Roman Catholic Church - under the leadership of the Pope in Rome.

A paper on martin luther and the protestant reformation

By the apostolic constitution Indulgentiarum doctrina [22] of 1 JanuaryPope Paul VIresponding to suggestions made at the Second Vatican Councilsubstantially revised the practical application of the traditional doctrine.

For this purpose he decreed that partial indulgences, previously granted as the equivalent of a certain number of days, months, quarantines forty-day periods or years of canonical penance, simply supplement, and to the same degree, the remission that those performing the indulgenced action already gain by the charity and contrition with which they do it.

In Indulgentiarum doctrina Pope Paul VI wrote that indulgences cannot be gained without a sincere conversion of outlook and unity with God. While a number of indulgenced prayers and good works were removed from the list, it now includes new general grants of partial indulgences that apply to a wide range of prayerful actions, and it indicates that the prayers that it does list as deserving veneration on account of divine inspiration or antiquity or as being in widespread use are only examples [26] of those to which the first of these general grants applies: Actions for which indulgences are granted[ edit ] There are four general grants of indulgence, which are meant to encourage the faithful to infuse a Christian spirit into the actions of their daily lives and to strive for perfection of charity.

These indulgences are partial, and their worth therefore depends on the fervour with which the person performs the recommended actions: Raising the mind to God with humble trust while performing one's duties and bearing life's difficulties, and adding, at least mentally, some pious invocation.

Devoting oneself or one's goods compassionately in a spirit of faith to the service of one's brothers and sisters in need.

Freely abstaining in a spirit of penance from something licit and pleasant. Freely giving open witness to one's faith before others in particular circumstances of everyday life. Piously reading or listening to Sacred Scripture for at least half an hour.

They include but are not limited to: Receiving, even by radio or television, the blessing given by the Pope Urbi et Orbi to the city of Rome and to the world or that which a bishop is authorized to give three times a year to the faithful of his diocese. Of particular significance is the plenary indulgence attached to the Apostolic Blessing that a priest is to impart when giving the sacraments to a person in danger of death, and which, if no priest is available, the Church grants to any rightly disposed Christian at the moment of death, on condition that that person was accustomed to say some prayers during life.

In this case the Church itself makes up for the three conditions normally required for a plenary indulgence: When these lapsi later wished to once again be admitted to the Christian community, some of the lapsi presented a second libellus purported to bear the signature of some martyr or confessor who, it was held, had the spiritual prestige to reaffirm individual Christians.

Bishop Cyprian of Carthage insisted that none of the lapsi be admitted without sincere repentance. Any who objected to the new arrangement was to observe the much longer ancient penance. The Penitential of Cummean counseled a priest to take into consideration in imposing a penance, the penitent's strengths and weaknesses.

Some penances could be commuted through payments or substitutions. It became customary to commute penances to less demanding works, such as prayers, alms, fasts and even the payment of fixed sums of money depending on the various kinds of offenses tariff penances. While the sanctions in early penitentials, such as that of Gildas, were primarily acts of mortification or in some cases excommunication, the inclusion of fines in later compilations derive from secular law.

Then, in the 11th and 12th centuries, the recognition of the value of these works began to become associated not so much with canonical penance but with remission of the temporal punishment due to sin.

A particular form of the commutation of penance was practiced at the time of the Crusades when the confessor required the penitent to go on a Crusade in place of some other penance.

The Protestant Reformation

Around the Dominican Hugh of St-Cher proposed the idea of a "treasury" at the Church's disposal, consisting of the infinite merits of Christ and the immeasurable abundance of the saints' merits, a thesis that was demonstrated by great scholastics such as Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas and remains the basis for the theological explanation of indulgences.

As Purgatory became more prominent in Christian thinking, the idea developed that the term of indulgences related to remission of time in Purgatory. Indeed, many Late Medieval indulgences were for terms well over a human lifetime, reflecting this belief.

For several centuries it was debated by theologians whether penance or purgatory was the currency of the indulgences granted, and the church did not settle the matter definitively, for example avoiding doing so at the Council of Trent.

Late Medieval usage[ edit ] "Pardoner" redirects here. Indulgences became increasingly popular in the Middle Ages as a reward for displaying piety and doing good deeds, though, doctrinally speaking, the Church stated that the indulgence was only valid for temporal punishment for sins already forgiven in the Sacrament of Confession.

The faithful asked that indulgences be given for saying their favourite prayers, doing acts of devotion, attending places of worship, and going on pilgrimage ; confraternities wanted indulgences for putting on performances and processions; associations demanded that their meetings be rewarded with indulgences.In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, an indulgence (Latin: indulgentia, from *dulgeō, "persist") is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins".

It may reduce the "temporal punishment for sin" after death (as opposed to the eternal punishment merited by mortal sin), in the state or process of purification called Purgatory.

Who Was Martin Luther? Martin Luther (November 10, to February 18, ) was a German monk who began the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, becoming one of . Hellenistic Monarchs down to the Roman Empire.

A paper on martin luther and the protestant reformation

The Hellenistic Age suffers from some of the same disabilities as Late Antiquity, i.e. it doesn't measure up to the brilliance of the Golden Age of Greece and of late Republican and early Imperial Rome.

Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation - During the Renaissance, technology became more advanced and more available to the common public. The printing press was invented during this time. This invention made it possible for . From “one of the best of the new [Martin Luther] biographers” (The New Yorker), a portrait of the complicated founding father of the Protestant Reformation, whose intellectual assault on Catholicism transformed Christianity and changed the course of world history.“Magnificent.”—The Wall Street Journal “Penetrating.”—The New York Times Book Review.

The Protestant Reformation was not only a pivotal time in European history, but in world history as well. It was time of immense economic, political, and social change. The most well-known religious reformer of the time was Martin Luther, who famously nailed his list of 95 grievances to the church door in Wittenberg.

A paper on martin luther and the protestant reformation
Martin Luther's 95 Theses