Views[ edit ] Various groups along the political spectrum naturally differ on what they believe constitutes true political freedom. Left-wing political philosophy generally couples the notion of freedom with that of positive libertyor the enabling of a group or individual to determine their own life or realize their own potential.
Constitution of the Netherlands The Dutch Constitution lists the basic civil and social rights of the Dutch citizens and it describes the position and function of the institutions that have executive, legislative and judiciary power.
It should be noted that the constitution of the Netherlands is only applicable in the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Netherlands does not have a constitutional court and judges do not have the authority to review laws on their constitutionality. International treaties and the Statute of the Kingdom, however, overrule Dutch law and the constitution and judges are allowed to review laws against these in a particular court case.
Furthermore, all legislation that is not a law in the strict sense of the word such as policy guidelines or laws proposed by provincial or municipal government can be tested on their constitutionality.
Amendments to the constitution must be approved by both Houses of the States General Staten-Generaal twice. The first time around, this requires a majority vote. After parliament has been dissolved and general elections are held, both Houses must approve the proposed amendments with a two-thirds vote.
Johan Rudolph Thorbeckeleader of the Constitutional Reform of Major political institutions are the monarchy, the cabinet, the States General and the judicial system.
There are three other High Colleges of state, which stand on equal foot with parliament but have a less political role, of which the Council of State is the most important. Other levels of government are the municipalities, the water boards and the provinces. Although not mentioned in the Constitution, political parties and the social partners organised in the Social Economic Council are important political institutions as well.
It is important to realise that the Netherlands does not have a traditional separation of powers: All legislation has to pass through the Council of State Dutch: Raad van State for advice and the Social-Economic Council advises the government on most social-economic legislation.
The executive power is reserved for government. Note however that the Social Economic Council has the special right to make and enforce legislation on several sectors, mostly in agriculture.
The judicial power is divided into two separate systems of courts. For civil and criminal law the independent Supreme Court is the highest court. For administrative law the Raad van State is the highest court, which is ex officio chaired by the King.
The present monarchy was founded in The new monarchy was confirmed in at the Congress of Vienna as part of the re-arrangement of Europe after the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The current monarch is Willem-Alexander. The heir apparent is the Princess of OrangeCatharina-Amalia. Constitutionally, the monarch is head of state and has a role in the formation of government and in the legislative process.
He has to co-sign every law to make it valid.Democracy in the Netherlands. The Netherlands is a parliamentary democracy. Normally once every four years the Dutch citizens entitled to vote (Dutch nationals aged 18 or over) elect the people who will represent them in Parliament, so the elections are the basis of .
The Netherlands is a small country both in size ( st out of countries, with an area of 41, square kilometers) and in population (ranked 65 th with just under 17 million people). Yet, the Netherlands has among the world's most dynamic economies, although somewhat slowed by the –09 international economic crisis.
Different poverty levels. Poverty lines shown here include $1 a day, $ a day, $ a day, $2 a day (typical for many developing countries), $ a day (which includes a poverty level for some additional countries), and $10 a day, which a World Bank report referred to if looking at poverty from the level of a wealthy country, such as the US.
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