Definition of Modern Drama 1 1.
New Literary History, Vol. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. The word goes back to ancient Greece and had, there, a complex history which has not, I suspect, been traced adequately in the only history of the term, Max Schle- singer's Geschichte des Symbols, published in It can, I suggest, be con- veniently used as a general term for the literature in all Western countries following the decline of 19th-century realism and naturalism and preceding the rise of the new avant-garde movements: How has it come about?
Can such a use be justified? We must distinguish among different problems: We must ask, on the one hand, what the contemporaries meant by it, who called himself a "symbolist" or who wanted to be included in a movement called "symbolism," and on the other hand, what modern scholarship might decide about who is to be included and what characteristics of the period seem decisive.
In speaking of "symbolism" as a period-term located in history we must also think of its situation in space. Literary terms most frequently radiate from one center but do so unevenly; they seem to stop at the frontiers of some countries or cross them and languish there or, sur- prisingly, flourish more vigorously on a new soil.
A geography of lit- erary terms is needed which might attempt to account for the spread and distribution of terms by examining rival terms or accidents of biography or simply the total situation of a literature. There seems to be a widespread agreement that the literary history i Berlin, Renaissance, Baroque, Classicism, Romanti- cism and Realism.
Among these terms Baroque is a comparative new- comer which has not been adopted everywhere, though there seems a clear need of a name for the style that reacted against the Renaissance but preceded Classicism.
The term "Mod- ernism" and its variants such as the German "Die Moderne"3 have been used but have the obvious disadvantage that they can be applied to any contemporary art.
Particularly in English, the term "modern" has preserved its early meaning of a contrast to classical antiquity or is used for everything that occurred since the Middle Ages.
The Cam- bridge Modern History is an obvious example. The attempts to dis- criminate between the "modern" period now belonging to the past and the "contemporaneous" seem forced, at least terminologically.
In the East it is used as a catchall for everything disapproved as decadent, formalistic, and alienated: The older terms were appealed to at the turn of the century by the- orists and slogan writers, who either believed that these terms are ap- plicable to all literature or consciously thought of themselves as reviv- ing the style of an older period.
Some spoke of a new "classicism," par- ticularly in France, assuming that all good art must be classical. Croce shares this view. Those who felt a kinship with the Romantic Age, mainly in Germany, spoke of "Neuromantik" appealing to Friedrich Schlegel's dictum that all poetry is romantic.
Realism also asserted its claim, mainly in Marxist contexts, in which all art is considered "realistic" or at least "a reflection of reality. I have counted the phrase "Widerspiegelung der Wirklichkeit" in the first volume; it appears 1,o32 times.
I was too lazy or bored to count it in volume 2. All these monisms endanger meaningful schemes of literary periodization. For many years I have argued the advantage of a multiple scheme of periods as it permits a variety of criteria.
The one criterion "realism" would divide all art into realistic and non-realistic art and thus would allow only one approving adjective: Period must be conceived neither as some essence which has to be intuited as a Platonic idea nor as a mere arbitrary linguistic label.
It should be understood as a "regulative idea," as a system of norms, conventions and values which can be traced in its rise, spread and decline, in competition with preceding and following norms, conventions and values.
We must beware, of course, of confusing this historical form with age-old symbolism, or with the view that all art is symbolic, as language is a system of sym- bols. Symbolism in the sense of a use of symbols in literature is clearly omnipresent in literature of many styles, periods and civilizations.
Symbols are all-pervasive in medieval literature and even the classics of realism - Tolstoy and Flaubert, Balzac and Dickens - use symbols, often prominently.Compare and Contrast Edgar Allan Poe’s Short Story ‘the Black Cat’ with Roald Dahl’s Short Story ‘the Land Lady’.
Edgar Allan Poe was a 19th century American writer who is known to be a pioneer of short story writing, a poet and a novelist. At this point in the plot of “The Minister’s Black Veil" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, there is a definite turn in the way the people of the town perceive their minister.
After the service, everyone stares at him and rumors begin to fly, especially since his sermon had to do with the notion of secret sin.
- The Scarlet Letter is a blend of realism, symbolism, and allegory. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses historical settings for this fictional novel and even gives historical background information for the inspiration of the story of Hester Prynne in the introduction of The Scarlet Letter, ‘The Custom-House’.
Realism, Literary Fiction, Drama. Setting and Context. Salinas Valley, California, probably in the s or s The Question and Answer section for The Chrysanthemums is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
Symbolism in John Steinbeck’s “The Chrysanthemums”. Keep in mind that Hawthorne’s fiction writing has strongly influenced our present day stereotypes of the Puritans.
Also consider that he maybe using Puritan characters in “Young Goodman Brown” to create an allegory that both critiques Puritan culture and transcends their specific culture and time period.
Explicating a symbol: the case of Hawthorne's "The Minister's Black Veil" You have to be specific in spelling out the meaning of the symbols you undertake to discuss.
Now it is only within the situation as a whole that individual persons, objects, and acts acquire their particular symbolic meanings in .