Basic Issues and Simple Versions a. Introduction to Plain Consequentialism There is disagreement about how consequentialism can best be formulated as a precise theory, and so there are various versions of consequentialism.
Richard Yarger Gregory D. Foster argued in a Washington Quarterly article that there is no official or accepted general Ends ways and means of us of strategy in the United States. In fact, he notes that as a people Americans seem to regard theorizing in general as a futile intellectual exercise.
If one were to construct such a theory, Foster continues, it should incorporate those elements found in any complete theory: Foster may have this theory thing right. There is little evidence that collectively as a nation there is any agreement on just what constitutes a theory of strategy.
This is very unfortunate because the pieces for a good theory of strategy have been laying around the U. Army War College for years--although sometimes hard to identify amongst all the intellectual clutter. The theory is quite simple, but it often appears unduly complex as a result of confusion over terminology and definitions and the underlying assumptions and premises.
One sees the term strategy misapplied often. There is a tendency to use it as a general term for a plan, concept, course of action, or "idea" of a direction in which to proceed. Such use is inappropriate. Strategy is the domain of the senior leader at the higher echelons of the state, the military, business corporations, or other institutions.
Henry Eccles describes strategy as " It is comprehensive, it provides direction, its purpose is control, and it is fundamentally concerned with the application of power. Strategy as used in the Army War College curriculum focuses on the nation-state and the use of the elements of power to serve state interests.
The underlying assumption of strategy from a national perspective is that states and other competitive entities have interests that they will pursue to the best of their abilities. Interests are desired end states such as survival, economic well-being, and enduring national values.
The national elements of power are the resources used to promote or advance national interests. Strategy is the pursuit, protection, or advancement of these interests through the application of the instruments of power.
Strategy is fundamentally a choice; it reflects a preference for a future state or condition. In doing so, strategy confronts adversaries and some things simply remain beyond control or unforeseen. Strategy is all about how way or concept leadership will use the power means or resources available to the state to exercise control over sets of circumstances and geographic locations to achieve objectives ends that support state interests.
Strategy provides direction for the coercive or persuasive use of this power to achieve specified objectives.
This direction is by nature proactive. It seeks to control the environment as opposed to reacting to it. Strategy is not crisis management. It is its antithesis. Crisis management occurs when there is no strategy or the strategy fails.
Thus, the first premise of a theory of strategy is that strategy is proactive and anticipatory. A second premise of a theory of strategy is that the strategist must know what is to be accomplished--that is, he must know the end state that he is trying to achieve. Only by analyzing and understanding the desired end state in the context of the internal and external environment can the strategist develop appropriate objectives leading to the desired end state.
A third premise of a theory of strategy is that the strategy must identify an appropriate balance among the objectives sought, the methods to pursue the objectives, and the resources available.
In formulating a strategy the ends, ways, and means are part of an integral whole and if one is discussing a strategy at the national grand level with a national level end, the ways and means would similarly refer to national level concepts and resources.
That is ends, ways, and means must be consistent. Thus a National Security Strategy end could be supported by concepts based on all the instruments of power and the associated resources.
For the military element of power, the National Military Strategy would identify appropriate ends for the military to be accomplished through national military concepts with national military resources.
In a similar manner a Theater or Regional Commander in Chief CINC would have specific theater level objectives for which he would develop theater concepts and use resources allocated to his theater.
In some cases these might include other than military instruments of power if those resources are available. The levels of strategy are distinct, but interrelated because of the hierarchical and comprehensive nature of strategy.
Policy is the expression of the desired end state sought by the government.Many people have been trying to answer the question of How to Budget when you don't make enough money.
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By any means necessary is a translation of a phrase used by French intellectual Jean-Paul Sartre in his play Dirty schwenkreis.com entered the popular civil rights culture through a speech given by Malcolm X at the Organization of Afro-American Unity founding rally on June 28, It is generally considered to leave open all available tactics for the desired ends, including violence; however, the.
The flaw in Lykke's "equation", or at least its application, is the assumption that ends, way, and means are constants.
Ends are a function of actions by the enemy, by allies, by neutrals, and by internal factors — E = f(e,a,n,i). Ways are . ways (courses of action) plus means (instruments by which some end can be achieved).” 3 This formula is deeply ingrained in the thinking of US military officers and analysts.
UNDERSTANDING REVELATION AND RHEMA. Before I share with you my understanding of the end generation, I need to explain something that few understand in the body of Christ, even among the Charismatics who emphasize “the spirituals” – the gifts of the Spirit.