In Spanish, the official language, the country is called Guinea Ecuatorial Orientation Identification.
Why are there so many ENSO indexes, instead of just one? But we have also mentioned other ways of measuring ENSO. Here, we will review some of them and then provide reasons why several different indicators are best for monitoring ENSO. Historically, an index has been a common way to summarize the ENSO status.
An index is a number scale in which all the individual factors needed to describe a complicated phenomenon are boiled down to a single number. That single number then can be tracked over time.
A seesaw in pressure at these locations reflects the atmospheric component of ENSO, discovered in the early s by Walker and Bliss and others.
The fact that the SOI is based on the sea level pressure at just two individual stations means it can be affected by shorter-term, day-to-day or week-to-week fluctuations unrelated to ENSO.
But averaging the index values over months or seasons helps to isolate more sustained deviations from the average, like those associated with ENSO. Location of the two rectangular regions whose average sea level pressures are used to compute the Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index: One over the eastern equatorial Pacific, and one over Indonesia.
However, data for this index only extend back to 2. In contrast, the Tahiti-Darwin index goes back to the late s because of longer station records. Sea surface temperature indexes Later on, sea surface temperature data were increasingly used because the ocean was recognized to be a key player in ENSO BjerknesRasmussen and CarpenterWyrtki 3.
Outgoing longwave radiation indexes With the introduction of continuous satellite-based data inanother highly ENSO-relevant index became available—outgoing longwave radiation, which indicates the extent of convection thunderstorm activity across the tropical Pacific 4.
By mapping outgoing radiation from cloud tops, we detect which areas in the tropical Pacific are rainier or drier than average. Above-average thunderstorm activity often not always occurs in areas having above-average sea surface temperature.
The outgoing longwave radiation is therefore not only very relevant to the ENSO state, but also serves as a key linkage to the remote climate teleconnections outside the tropical Pacific region e.
Chiodi and Harrison Wind indexes In addition to sea level pressure, sea surface temperature, and outgoing longwave radiation, there are also wind-based indexes across the tropical Pacific, which measure the movement of air flow in the upper and lower branches of the Pacific Walker circulation 5.
So, now you might ask why we continue to use so many different measures of ENSO. Well, ENSO is multifacetedinvolving different aspects of the ocean and the atmosphere over the tropical Pacific.
By analogy, consider the process of hiring someone into your organization. You want someone who is proficient and experienced in your specialty. But you also want a good team player, a good writer and speaker, and someone who interacts comfortably with the public.
So just a score on a written test would not be sufficient; you and your coworkers would want to interview the person to understand their other qualities 6. Diagnosing the ENSO state works in a similar fashion.
Figure 4 shows the locations of the regions used for the two Southern Oscillation indexes shown in Figs. Also, we cannot measure one aspect of the entire tropical Pacific perfectly, so we get a better picture when we consider a few related measures 7.
Another reason for multiple indexes is that we want to to compare different ENSO events in history, but not all ocean and atmospheric indexes go far back in time. To deal with the multiple aspects of ENSO, you might imagine that more than one index could be combined into a composite index, such as one based on both sea surface temperature and pressure anomalies, or other combinations.
Such composite indexes have been explored. Although these indexes are interesting and innovative, so far they have not been widely used by any of the global forecast producing centers.
This way we can explain just what went into our hiring decision, and also know where future improvements may be needed.A free online network which facilitates and promotes awareness, excellence and innovation within the Canadian manufacturing industry.
Of the 13 countries that lie on the equator, seven are in Africa—the most of any continent—while South America is home to three of the nations (Ecuador, Colombia, and Brazil). The remaining three (Maldives, Kiribati, and Indonesia) are island nations in the Indian and Pacific oceans.
Discover the latest trends in design, quality and comfort with Fluchos mens and womens shoes. Visit the new FLUCHOS collection! Coffee Around the World. The ideal conditions for coffee trees to thrive are found around the world in along the Equatorial zone called “The Bean Belt,” located between latitudes 25 degrees North and 30 degrees South.
What is equatorial region? Equatorial regions are found between 5°° north and south latitudes of the equator. Regions between these latitudes include- Amazon basin, Congo basin, Niger .
Equatorial The equatorial, hot, wet, climate is found between 5 degrees north and 10 degrees south of the equator. The temperature of the equatorial regions is hot throughout the year, with a very low temperature range usually of less than 3 degrees Celsius.