This paper provides an overview of the development of the internet and the world wide web, providing a great deal of technical information in 9 pages. In addition to the evolution of this widely used phenomenon, current application in terms of business, entertainment and education are noted as well.
Notes Acknowledgments The ideas for this book come from the theoretical and practical work I have been doing for the last ten years.
None of that work has been done alone. As a result, the list of people to whom I am indebted makes Oscar night acknowledgments look haiku-terse by comparison. Here I can mention only a few. I beg pardon for the inevitable omissions.
First and foremost, my family has tolerated my eccentricities and fixations and moderated them with gentle and deserved mockery.
Then it would be in the public domain, right? I owe the Hackers the criminals of the information superhighway debt of gratitude to my colleague Jennifer Jenkins, who directs the Center and who has influenced every chapter in this book.
David Lange brought me to Duke. His work on the public domain has always been an inspiration to mine. Jerry Reichman has supplied energy, insight, and a spirited and cosmopolitan focus on the multiple ways in which property can be protected. Jed Purdy and Neil Siegel commented on drafts and provided crucial insights on the construction of my argument.
Amidst a brilliant group of research assistants, Jordi Weinstock and David Silverstein stood out. Jordi showed a dogged ability to track down obscure s songs that was almost scary. Balfour Smith, the coordinator of our Center, shepherded the manuscript through its many drafts with skill and erudition.
Duke is the most interdisciplinary university I have ever encountered and so the obligations flow beyond the law school. Professor Anthony Kelley, a brilliant composer, not only educated me in composition and the history of musical borrowing but co-taught a class on musical borrowing that dramatically influenced Chapter 6.
Colleagues in the business school—particularly Jim Anton, a great economic modeler and greater volleyball partner, and Wes Cohen, a leading empiricist—all left their marks.
I was also inspired and informed by colleagues and students in computer science, English, history, and political science. But the work I am describing here is—as the last chapter suggests—something that goes far beyond the boundaries of one institution.
A large group of intellectual property scholars have influenced my ideas.
Jessica in particular caught and corrected some of my many errors, while Pam encouraged me to think about the definition of the public domain in ways that have been vital to this book.
Michael suggested valuable edits—though I did not always listen. Historical work by Carla Hesse, Martha Woodmansee, and Mark Rose has been central to my analysis, which also could not have existed but for work on the governance of the commons by Elinor Ostrom, Charlotte Hess, and Carol Rose.
Kembrew McLeod and Siva Vaidhyanathan inspired my work on music and sampling. Peter Jaszi was named in my last book as the person who most influenced it. Beyond the academy, my main debt is to the board members and staff of Creative Commons, Science Commons, and ccLearn.
Creative Commons, on whose board I am proud to have served, is the brainchild of Larry Lessig and Hal Abelson; Science Commons and ccLearn are divisions of Creative Commons that I helped to set up which concentrate on the sciences and on education, respectively. Hal Abelson, Michael Carroll, and Eric Saltzman were on the midwife team for the birth of those organizations and became close friends in the process.
Since the entire Creative Commons staff has made it routine to do seven impossible things before breakfast, it is hard to single out any one individual—but without Glenn Brown at Creative Commons and John Wilbanks at Science Commons, neither organization would exist today.
Jimmy Wales, founder of Wikipedia and another Creative Commons board member, also provided key insights. Finally, but for the leadership of Laurie Racine neither Creative Commons nor our Center at Duke would be where they are today, and thus many of the experiments I describe in this book would not have happened.
The intellectual property bar is a fascinating, brilliant, and engagingly eccentric group of lawyers. I owe debts to many of its members. Whitney Broussard told me the dirty secrets of the music industry. Daphne Keller—a former student and later a colleague—helped in more ways than I can count.
A number of scientists and computer scientists made me see things I otherwise would not have—Drew Endy and Randy Ruttenberg in synthetic biology, Nobel laureates Sir John Sulston and Harold Varmus in genomics and biology more generally, Paul Ginsparg in astrophysics, and Harlan Onsrud in geospatial data.
The work of Richard Stallman, the creator of the free software movement, remains an inspiration even though he profoundly disagrees with my nomenclature here—and with much else besides. Activists, civil rights lawyers, bloggers, and librarians have actually done much of the hard work of building the movement I describe at the end of this book.
Jamie Love has touched, sparked, or masterminded almost every benign development I write about here, and novelist Cory Doctorow has either blogged it or influenced it.
John Howkins and Gilberto Gil have provided considerable leadership internationally.Thieves are targeting your vehicle, but also the data within it, which could lead to credit card details, location information, Social Security numbers, and personal IDs like drivers’ licenses.
Trying to define Cyberpunk is a difficult task. In short, however, Cyberpunk refers to both a culture and a genre. Cyberpunk is a sub-genre of science fiction that features advanced science and technology in an urban, dystopian future. About half of the people responding in this study were in substantial agreement that the positives of digital life will continue to outweigh the negatives.
"When you think of a title for a book, you are forced to think of something short and evocative, like, well, 'The Virtual Community,' even though a more accurate title might be: 'People who use computers to communicate, form friendships that sometimes form the basis of communities, but you have to be careful to not mistake the tool for the task and think that just writing words on a screen is.
The PwC study showed that hackers, hacktivists, organized crime, and foreign nation-states accounted for 61 percent of data security threats in , and if the headlines are . WITI's Web site provides visitors with news, career opportunities, articles and info to empower women through technology.