The most spectacular and beautiful beads from Burma originate mostly from the Pyu city state culture. As you have seen on this page they also cover a huge variety of beads. They began around B. Contemporary Chinese visitors characterized the Pyu city states as peaceful and affluent.
A Journal of Mormon Scripture 26 Review of Brian D. Following several articles and presentations over the past two decades on tantalizing finds linking Uto-Aztecan languages with Near Eastern languages, LDS linguist Brian Stubbs has recently published two significant works offering extensive details and documentation.
The more comprehensive volume intended for scholars and serious students of language is Exploring the Explanatory Power of Semitic and Egyptian in Uto-Aztecan, a highly technical work providing 1, sets of cognates with intricate details linking Uto-Aztecan languages with two versions of Semitic and with Egyptian.
Stubbs has made his work more accessible to general LDS readers with a less technical and highly readable work, Changes in Languages from Nephi to Now, that relates his findings to the Book of Mormon and what we can infer about the languages of Book of Mormon peoples.
The changes in those languages, correspond remarkably well with the infusions of Near Eastern language that can be seen in abundance in Uto-Aztecan. Numerous questions remain that may require lifetimes of further research, but the meticulous foundation Stubbs has laid must not be treated like past amateurish and erroneous efforts over the centuries to find Hebrew in Native American languages.
This is a serious, scholarly work that rises above the standards typically used to establish authentic language families. The evidence for, say, Hebrew in Uto-Aztecan is actually more impressive than the linguistic evidence for Hebrew influence in Yiddish.
While implications for these finds on the Book of Mormon can be overstated, what Stubbs has uncovered may be among the most impressive scholarly finds related to the Book of Mormon. When asked what the most impressive evidence is for Book of Mormon authenticity, serious students of the Book of Mormon often point to one of a small handful of items: The strong and compelling evidence of ancient Semitic elements in Uto-Aztecan UA from a skilled linguist, thoroughly aware of what it takes to establish relationships between languages, demands a good deal from a reader to appreciate the linguistic data that now exists and may take decades before its explanatory power is widely recognized in the Church and among other hesitant scholars.
But what has been achieved already is so remarkable and so interesting, it may well be the next big thing for some of us. Let me jump to the big picture and put it in context: Non-believers are likely to dismiss the work as fantasy based upon contriving a meaningless list of imaginative links that Stubbs has found by scanning dozens of languages to cherry-pick a few purported links.
Book of Mormon believers might conclude that Stubbs has actually found a few tantalizing and possibly legitimate traces of ancient Near Eastern influence that have survived as faint echoes in Native American languages.
Both initial assumptions may be wildly wrong. Stubbs has shared several aspects of his works in recent years,8 but the buzz in the LDS community has been disproportionately muted. The parallels identified frequently have significant depth, involving multiple words across multiple UA languages and sometimes showing surprising relationships in meaning or behavior.
The large quantity of cognates, coupled with the evidence of systematic sound changes one expects to find between related languages and even some evidence of grammatical influence typically fossilizedcreates a compelling case that exceeds the standards commonly used by linguists to establish connections between languages.
The correspondences are at a level far beyond mere chance and highly contrived pattern seeking. There is a depth and beauty in this work that merits much more investigation and attention, along with bigger headlines.
The meat of the book is the large sections exploring patterns of relationships with many specific examples creating impressive cases for relationships between Uto-Aztecan and Near Eastern languages, including Hebrew and Egyptian. This book has large pages and small print with extensive technical detail, offering detailed examples of parallels meaningfully grouped according to the Near Eastern languages and key sound changes.
There are also very useful sections listing English words and the corresponding UA words that are considered, and there are sections listing Semitic and Egyptian words to allow readers to locate the relevant item numbers quickly among his plus.
Exploring the Explanatory Power also has helpful introductory chapters on Semitic, Egyptian, and Uto-Aztecan, and concluding sections highlight key sound changes and other patterns, plus there is an extensive bibliography.
It is a thorough and thoroughly impressive work. After Sapirestablished Uto-Aztecan as a viable family of related languages, Voegelin, Voegelin, and Hale produced the first numbered list of cognate sets.The S.
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