Research papers how universe began

We are neither affiliated with the author of this essay nor responsible for its content. If the Earth were flat, the entire ship would come into view at once as soon as it came close enough to shore. The Greek philosopher Aristotle provided two more reasons why the Earth was round.

Research papers how universe began

The Sun has always been the center of our cosmological systems. But with the advent of modern astronomy, humans have become aware of the fact that the Sun is merely one of countless stars in our Universe. In essence, it is a perfectly normal example of a G-type main-sequence star G2V, aka.

And like all stars, it has a lifespan, characterized by a formation, main sequence, and eventual death. This lifespan began roughly 4. As always, God or the Devil, depending on who you ask is in the details! To break it down, the Sun is about half way through the most stable part of its life.

Over the course of the past four billion years, during which time planet Earth and the entire Solar System was born, it has remained relatively unchanged. This will stay the case for another four billion years, at which point, it will have exhausted its supply of hydrogen fuel.

When that happens, some pretty drastic things will take place! The Birth of the Sun: According to Nebular Theorythe Sun and all the planets of our Solar System began as a giant cloud of molecular gas and dust.


This could have been the result of a passing star, or shock waves from a supernova, but the end result was a gravitational collapse at the center of the cloud.

As the denser regions pulled in more and more matter, conservation of momentum caused it to begin rotating, Research papers how universe began increasing pressure caused it to heat up.

Most of the material ended up in a ball at the center while the rest of the matter flattened out into disk that circled around it.

The ball at the center would eventually form the Sun, while the disk of material would form the planets. The Sun spent aboutyears as a collapsing protostar before temperature and pressures in the interior ignited fusion at its core.

The Sun started as a T Tauri star — a wildly active star that blasted out an intense solar wind. And just a few million years later, it settled down into its current form. The life cycle of the Sun had begun. The Sun, like most stars in the Universe, is on the main sequence stage of its life, during which nuclear fusion reactions in its core fuse hydrogen into helium.

Every second, million tons of matter are converted into neutrinos, solar radiation, and roughly 4 x Watts of energy. For the Sun, this process began 4.

However, this process cannot last forever since there is a finite amount of hydrogen in the core of the Sun. So far, the Sun has converted an estimated times the mass of the Earth into helium and solar energy. As more hydrogen is converted into helium, the core continues to shrink, allowing the outer layers of the Sun to move closer to the center and experience a stronger gravitational force.

This places more pressure on the core, which is resisted by a resulting increase in the rate at which fusion occurs. Basically, this means that as the Sun continues to expend hydrogen in its core, the fusion process speeds up and the output of the Sun increases. This will trigger a moist greenhouse effect here on Earth that is similar to the runaway warming that turned Venus into the hellish environment we see there today.

This increase will cause the oceans to boil, the ice caps to permanently melt, and all water vapor in the atmosphere to be lost to space. Under these conditions, life as we know it will be unable to survive anywhere on the surface. In short, planet Earth will come to be another hot, dry Venus. All things must end.

That is true for us, that is true for the Earth, and that is true for the Sun. This will begin in approximate 5. With its hydrogen exhausted in the core, the inert helium ash that has built up there will become unstable and collapse under its own weight.

This will cause the core to heat up and get denser, causing the Sun to grow in size and enter the Red Giant phase of its evolution. Even if the Earth survives, the intense heat from the red sun will scorch our planet and make it completely impossible for life to survive.


Final Phase and Death: But much will happen in this amount of time. The Sun will then shrink to around 10 times its current size and 50 times its luminosity, with a temperature a little lower than today.

For the next million years, it will continue to burn helium in its core until it is exhausted. By this point, it will be in its Asymptotic-Giant-Branch AGB phase, where it will expand again much faster this time and become more luminous.

Over the course of the next 20 million years, the Sun will then become unstable and begin losing mass through a series of thermal pulses. Planets in the Outer Solar System are likely to change dramatically, as more energy is absorbed from the Sun, causing their water ices to sublimate — perhaps forming dense atmosphere and surface oceans.The Universe Essays: Over , The Universe Essays, The Universe Term Papers, The Universe Research Paper, Book Reports.

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Research papers how universe began

Considering the development of life on Earth, the existence of life in extreme environments and the potential for life elsewhere in the Universe, this book gives a fascinating insight into our place in the Universe.

The Origin of the Universe This lecture is the intellectual property of Professor schwenkreis.comg. You may not reproduce, edit, translate, distribute, publish or host this document in any way with out the permission of Professor Hawking. Physics asks perplexing questions related to life including how the universe began, how the sun continues to give off energy, the future of our universe, and the building blocks of matter.

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The Universe research papers on the scientific view of the universe using astronomy and physics. “The universe” is a relative term that depends on the topic of the research paper you are writing to determine exactly what aspect of the universe is being examined.

AAS Resolution on Light Pollution. Adopted 4 January The AAS endorses IAU Resolution B5 "In Defence of the Night Sky and the Right to Starlight," affirming that access to a dark night sky is a universal human right, making quality outdoor lighting a worldwide imperative.

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