Oaks, Quorum of the 12 Apostles. Holy Ghost to personally authenticate the truthfulness of the origins and content of the Book of Mormon. Given constant encouragement from general and local leaders of reliance on supernatural manifestations a testimony over testable claims, it is not surprising that many faithful Latter-Day Saints seem unfazed by empirical evidence or the lack of it contradicting Book of Mormon claims, whether the research is conducted by Mormon or non-Mormon archaeologists and historians.
Language The capacity for language usually emerges in infants soon after the first birthday, and they make enormous progress in this area during their second year. Language is a symbolic form of communication that involves, on the one hand, the comprehension of words and sentences and, on the other, the expression of feelings, thoughts, and ideas.
The basic units of language are phonemesmorphemes, and words. Phonemes are the basic sounds that are combined to make words; most languages have about 30 phonemes, which correspond roughly to the sounds of the spoken letters of the alphabet. Although one-month-old infants can discriminate among various phonemes, they are themselves The significance of linguistic ability to animal operations to produce them.
In fact, one- to three-year-olds typically understand five times as many words as they actually use in everyday speech.
The average infant speaks his first words by 12—14 months; these are generally simple labels for persons, objects, or actions; e. The single words he uses may stand for entire sentences.
Articles a, an, theconjunctions and, or, butand prepositions in, on, under are almost completely absent at this stage. In their telegraphic sentences, children usually place the subject, object, and verb in an order that is correct within certain broad limits for their native language.
Other words are underextended; that is, they are defined too narrowly. Children learn the rules of syntax i. They begin to flesh out their noun-verb sentences with less critical words such as prepositions, conjunctions, articles, and auxiliary verbs. Children follow a typical sequence in their acquisition of grammatical rules, depending on the language they are learning to use.
In English, a child first masters the grammatical rules for the present tense e. Deaf children learning sign language from deaf-mute parents show in their signs the same course of development that is apparent in the speech of children with normal hearing. Finally, five- and six-year-olds demonstrate metalinguistic awareness—i.
They can differentiate between sounds that are real words and those that are not—e. They can tell the difference between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences and will make spontaneous corrections in their speech; that is to say, if a child makes a speech error, he recognizes it and will say the phrase or sentence correctly the second time.
A major disagreement among theories of language acquisition is their relative emphasis on the role of maturation of the brain, on the one hand, and of social interactionon the other.
The special biological basis of language is supported by the fact that deaf children who are not exposed to a sign language invent a symbol system that is similar in structure to that developed by hearing children.
But interaction with other people is also crucial. Cognitive development The mental activities involved in the acquisition, processing, organization, and use of knowledge are collectively termed cognition. These activities include selective attention, perception, discriminationinterpretation, classification, recall and recognition memory, evaluation, inferenceand deduction.
The cognitive structures that are involved in these processes include schemataimages, symbols, concepts or categories, and propositions.
A schema is an abstract representation of the distinctive characteristics of an event. These representations are not photographic copies or visual images but are more like schematic blueprints that emphasize the arrangement of a set of salient elements, which supply the schema with distinctiveness and differentiate it from similar events.
Young children already display a remarkable ability to generate and store schemata.
Another type of early cognitive unit is the image; this is a mental picture, or the reconstruction of a schema, that preserves the spatial and temporal detail of the event. Symbols represent the next level of abstraction from experience; they are arbitrary names for things and qualities.
Common examples of symbols are the names for objects, letters, and numbers. Whereas a schema or image represents a specific experience, such as a sight or sound, a symbol is an arbitrary representation of an event. The letter A is a symbol, and children use schemata, images, and symbols in their mastery of the alphabet.
Symbols are used in the development of higher cognitive units called concepts. A concept, or category, may be thought of as a special kind of symbol that represents a set of attributes common to a group of symbols or images. The concept represents a common attribute or meaning from a diverse array of experiences, while a symbol stands for a particular class of events.
According to Piaget, two of the four stages of cognitive development occur during childhood: It is important to make a distinction between the knowledge and skills a child possesses, called competence, and the demonstration of that knowledge in actual problem-solving situations, called performance.
Children often possess knowledge that they do not use even when the occasion calls for it. Adapting to new challenges, according to Piaget, requires two complementary processes.
The first, assimilationis the relating of a new event or object to cognitive structures the child already possesses. A five-year-old who has a concept of a bird as a living thing with a beak and wings that flies will try to assimilate the initial perception of an ostrich to his concept of bird.About us.
John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. More. Table 1: The four levels/modes of processing. Figures 3, 4, and 5 show how within the processing model, cognition depends upon context.
The effectiveness of the contribution of processing activities at each of these levels / modes, depends on the cognitive requirements posed by the specific context. Uses Scope. Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times.
Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture.
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Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal. It is derived from two Greek words: telos (end, goal, purpose) and logos (reason, explanation).
A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but controversial . Start studying Psychology Chapter 4. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
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